For the purposes of competences identification of the future-oriented entrepreneurs, the beFORE partnership investigated 193 sources, (global and domestic literature review: 71, syllabuses: 53, foresight courses: 17, business foresight practices: 52) which enabled to identify the extensive set of competences consisting of 1626 items. The detailed analysis of the higher education offer and commercial foresight courses make it possible to identify a wide array of interesting courses devoted to futures thinking (36 foresight courses related to futures studies (Table 1) and 12 commercial foresight courses (Table 2). Geographical distribution of the courses is presented in Figure 1.

Table 1. Higher education offer related to foresight studies

No University Country Course
1.              University of Houston/College of Technology USA Master of Science in Foresight
2.              University of Houston/College of Technology USA Professional Certificate in Foresight
3.              University of Potsdam, University of Turku, University of Malta Germany, Finland, Malta M.Sc. in Strategic Innovation and Future Creation
4.              Regent University USA The Doctor of Strategic Leadership (DSL) – Strategic Foresight
5.              Regent University USA Master of Arts in Strategic Foresight
6.              Regent University USA M.A. in Organizational Leadership – Futures Studies
7.              University of Turku (Turku School of Economics) Finland Masters Degree Programme in Futures Studies (FUTU)
8.              Ontario College of Art and Design Canada Master of Design in Strategic Foresight and Innovation
9.              California College of the Arts USA MBA in Strategic Foresight
10.              The University of Manchester UK Professional Development Course “The Art of Foresight & Horizon Scanning: Anticipating, Recommending and Transforming Research and Innovation Futures” (PhD)
11.              Aarhus University/Department of Business Development and Technology Denmark Strategy Synthesis (MA)
12.              Aarhus University/Department of Management Denmark Strategic Foresight (MA)
13.              Aarhus University/Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics Denmark Cultures of Prediction: How Scientists See the Future and Shape Society (MA)
14.              Aarhus University/Department of Management Denmark Future-Oriented Strategizing (MA)
15.              University of Hawai’i USA Futures Studies (BSc)
16.              University of Hawai’i USA Alternative Futures (MA)
17.              Swinburne University of Technology Australia Master of Design Strategy and Innovation (PhD)
18.              Swinburne University of Technology Australia Foresight Knowledge and Methods (MA)
19.              University  of Stellenbosch (Business School) South Africa Futurism and Business: Dealing with Complexity
20.              Stanford University USA Design Your Future: Design Innovation for Global Teams
21.              The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Business School Australia Futures Thinking And Strategy Development Workshop
22.              Białystok University of Technology Poland Technology Foresight in Services
23.              Łódź University Poland Regional Foresight
24.              Polish Naval Academy Poland Foresight Workshop
25.              Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań Poland Foresight And Strategic Analysis
26.              Collegiun Civitas Poland Managing the Future. Foresight and Strategic Planning
27.              Poznań University of Economic And Business Poland Management Strategies In Uncertainty
28.              SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities Poland Change Perspective and See  More
29.              University of Houston U.S. Houston Foresight Program
30.              Coursera Online Introduction to foresight
31.              The Global Foresight Group Switzerland Mastering strategic foresight programme: Exclusive leadership program on strategic thinking in uncertain times
32.              Freie Universität Berlin Germany Master of Futures Studies
33.              University of Applied Sciences Potsdam Germany Master of Urban Futures
34.              Kaospilot Denmark Embracing Complexity & Innovation through Chaordic Leadership
35.              Higher Politeknik School, Engineering Faculty, Mondragon University Spain Introduction to Foresight, main methodologies and tools and case examples.
36.              Babson Colleage, Undergraduate School at Babson Colleage USA Bachelor of Science degree to future leaders looking to create social and economic value around the world


Table 2. Foresight courses

No Company Country Course
1.          Chasing Sunrises Australia Emerging Trends
2.          Chasing Sunrises Australia Future Scenarios
3.          Chasing Sunrises Australia Creating Your Vision
4.          Chasing Sunrises Australia Strategic Planning
5.          Kairos Future Sweden International Certified Future Strategist Programme
6.          The Institute of Business Forecasting & Planning (IBF) USA Demand Planning, Forecasting, and S&OP Certification Program
7.          Shaping tomorrow UK Strategic foresight workshop
8.          Collegium Civitas Poland Risk Management: Forecasting, Strategic Planning, Foresight
9.          Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego Poland Innovation Manager
10.       Instytut Zachodni Poland Foresight – tools to support knowledge transfer between science and business
11.       University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer Germany Introduction Futures Studies for Engineers
12.       University of Applied Sciences Münster Germany Introduction to Futures Studies
in architecture and planning


The review of the foresight courses and their contents enabled the beFORE partnership to state that generally speaking: master, bachelor, PhD courses in the field of Futures Studies and Foresight focus on a general context of the field including its philosophical and ethical dimensions and include a strong methodological component; whereas short training offers in the field underline the overlapping of foresight with strategy of an organization, the connection between foresight and innovation and highlight a narrow set of foresight methods (most commonly: trend scanning, scenario building, strategy building and implementation; and to some extent: systems and complexity theories). When analyzing degrees in leadership, business management, strategic planning it has been apparent that foresight theories and methods are largely absent from these, rather traditional curricula (in some cases they only incl. forecasting methods). Also evident has been the importance of such personal traits as: creativity, imagination, welcoming change attitude, within programmes and courses in the field of leadership. The promotion of these attitudes was not a central learning objective of the majority of established educational offer in the field of foresight.