Topic Progress:

Summary of the lesson

Biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment. They can be classified in six different categories: memory biases, statistical biases, confidence biases, adjustment biases, presentation biases and situation biases.

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. The eight symptoms of groupthink are: illusion of invulnerability, rationale, morality, stereotypes, pressure, self-censorship, unanimity, mindguards.

References and further information

  • Arnott, D. (2002). Decision biases and decision support systems development (Working Paper. No. 2002/04). Melbourne, Australia: Decision Support Systems Laboratory, Monash University. 
  • Bonaccorsi, A., Fantoni, G., & Apreda, R. (2018). Cognitive and motivational biases in technology foresight.      A literature review for a neglected topic (Working Paper)
  • EFFLA (European Forum on Forward Looking Activities) (2013) Towards standards in Forward Looking Activities for the EC. Policy Brief no. 14.
  • Kahneman D., Slovic P., Tversky A. (1982) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking, fast and slow. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  • Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1974). Judgement under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science 185, 1124–1131.
  • Janis, I. L. (1971). Groupthink. Psychology today, 5(6), 43-46.
  • Janis, I. L. (2008). Groupthink. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 36(1), 36.